1493 – Christopher Columbus, on his second voyage of discovery, sights land (thought to be the present Dominican Republic) after sailing the Atlantic.
1843 – The statue of Horatio Nelson is placed on top of Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square.
1903 – Panama achieves independence.
1942 – The Battle of El Alamein – the British Eighth Army, commanded by General Bernard Montgomery, breaks through the German front line, having taken 9000 prisoners and destroyed 300 tanks.
1948 – Scottish singer, Marie Lawrie, is born in Lennoxtown near Glasgow. She became a national star at the age of only 16 with her first UK hit, ‘Shout’. We know her better as Lulu.
1957 – The Russians launch a dog, ‘Laika’, into space aboard Sputnik II. She dies when her oxygen runs out after 10 days.